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Several grades of petroleum-based diesel fuels for passenger cars are currently being offered on the German market, all of which must fulfill the requirements of DIN EN 590 pursuant to § 4 of the 10th BImSchV:

    "Standard" diesel
    Premium diesel with GtL admixture, increased cetane number and special additives

Especially in the case of premium fuels, it is clear that branded companies try to separate themselves from co-suppliers by means of special additions or quality improvements.

After the adaptation of DIN EN 590 (edition May 2010) to the requirements of EC Directive 98/70 / EC, an FAME admixture of up to 7% by volume ("B7 diesel") is permitted to meet the biofuel quotas. The national standard DIN 51628 (edition August 2008) for B7 diesel is accordingly no longer required and is no longer required.

Diesel is a mixture of kerosine, various medium distillate fractions, currently up to 7% by volume of biodiesel and various additives (in the ppm range). Kerosene and gas oil are largely recovered by fractionation of petroleum as middle distillate fractions and desulphurised for diesel production (see: Hydrodesulfurization). In addition, medium distillate fractions from cracking plants are used [e.g. Hydrocracker kerosene (HCU), HCU gas oil]. Diesel is a mixture tailored to the required qualities, a blend. The available components can have highly fluctuating qualities (depending on the crude oil) so that each batch may have to be produced with different mixing ratios (kerosene / light gas oil / heavy gas oil) in order to meet all the required specifications. Furthermore, the products of fuel oil EL and Jet are in direct competition with diesel fuel (see also: coupling production). Different demand volumes of medium distillate products therefore have an influence on the composition of the diesel.

In order to influence the cold properties of diesel fuel, an increased amount of kerosene must be added in the winter (see,,, CFPP).

In order to increase the ignition capability to predetermined specification values and thus improve the ignition capability of the diesel fuel, tetranitromethane, amyl nitrate, acetone peroxide or 2-ethylhexyl nitrate can be added. These additives partly increase the toxicity (toxicity) of the fuel. The criterion for ignitability is the cetane number (CZ). The higher the cetane number, the lower the ignition delay, which characterizes the time between injection start and auto-ignition of the fuel. Especially in the winter, in which increased amounts of kerosene (CZ ≈45) are mixed in diesel (CZ> 51) (winter diesel), such additives are necessary, even in order to prevent the diesel particulate filter from becoming clogged at minus degrees. [8th]

The Cloud Point and the Filterability Point (CFPP) can be reduced by appropriate additives. Lubricity-enhancing additives (lubricity additives) can guarantee the lubricity of the diesel fuel (see below).

In addition to these most important additives, numerous additives such as oxidation inhibitors, anti-foaming agents, corrosion inhibitors, detergents for the prevention of deposits in the injection system, conductivity enhancers, aromas and biocides are also added.

In Germany, approximately 35.3 million tonnes of diesel fuel (including inland waterway diesel) were produced in 2007. [9]

The main components of the diesel fuel are predominantly alkanes, cycloalkanes and aromatic hydrocarbons having about 9 to 22 carbon atoms per molecule and a boiling range between 170 ° C. and 390 ° C. This fuel had a very wide fractionation range before 1995, which is why the comparatively many heavy fractions could lead to the soot of the engine. However, the stricter specifications (density, 95% point, see below) have significantly reduced this risk.

Further characteristics are determined by the specifications.
Other ingredients and properties are regulated by the European Standard EN 590. The standard has been published in Germany as a DIN standard and has replaced the previously valid DIN 51601 and DIN 51628 as DIN EN 590. Furthermore, many brand companies are setting additional internal specifications [2] or tightening the specifications with regard to the standard.
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